Medical ethics shares many principles with other branches of healthcare ethics, such as nursing ethics. A bioethicist assists the health care and research community in examining moral issues involved in our understanding of life and death, and resolving ethical dilemmas in medicine and science. Examples of this would be the topic of equality in medicine, the intersection of cultural practices and medical care, and issues of bioterrorism. Bioethicists come from a wide variety of backgrounds and have training in a diverse array of disciplines.
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The field contains individuals trained in philosophy such as H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. The field, formerly dominated by formally trained philosophers, has become increasingly interdisciplinary , with some critics even claiming that the methods of analytic philosophy have had a negative effect on the field's development. Bioethics has also benefited from the process philosophy developed by Alfred North Whitehead.
- Perspectives on Disability, Discrimination, Accommodations, and Law (Law and Society (New York, N.Y.).)!
- Ebook Religious Methods And Resources In Bioethics 1994.
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Many religious communities have their own histories of inquiry into bioethical issues and have developed rules and guidelines on how to deal with these issues from within the viewpoint of their respective faiths. The Jewish , Christian and Muslim faiths have each developed a considerable body of literature on these matters. In many Asian cultures, for example, there is a lively discussion on bioethical issues. Buddhist bioethics, in general, is characterised by a naturalistic outlook that leads to a rationalistic, pragmatic approach.
Buddhist bioethicists include Damien Keown. In India, Vandana Shiva is a leading bioethicist speaking from the Hindu tradition. In Africa, and partly also in Latin America, the debate on bioethics frequently focuses on its practical relevance in the context of underdevelopment and geopolitical power relations.
Some are calling for a change, and feel that indigenous African philosophy should be applied. The belief is that Africans will be more likely to accept a bioethical approach grounded in their own culture, and that it will empower African people and give them dignity. During this period, unique philosophical discussions on brain death and disability appeared both in the academy and journalism.
Community, social values, and family are all heavily valued in Chinese culture, and contribute to the lack of emphasis on autonomy in Chinese bioethics. The Chinese believe that the family, community, and individual are all interdependent of each other, so it is common for the family unit to collectively make decisions regarding healthcare and medical decisions for a loved one, instead of an individual making an independent decision for his or her self.
Some argue that spirituality and understanding one another as spiritual beings and moral agents is an important aspect of bioethics, and that spirituality and bioethics are heavily intertwined with one another. As a healthcare provider, it is important to know and understand varying world views and religious beliefs.
Having this knowledge and understanding can empower healthcare providers with the ability to better treat and serve their patients. Developing a connection and understanding of a patient's moral agent helps enhance the care provided to the patient. Without this connection or understanding, patients can be at risk of becoming "faceless units of work" and being looked at as a "set of medical conditions" as opposed to the storied and spiritual beings that they are.
Bioethics in the realm of Islam differs from Western bioethics, but they share some similar perspectives viewpoints as well. Western bioethics is focused around rights, especially individual rights. Islamic bioethics focuses more on religious duties and obligations, such as seeking treatment and preserving life. These influences essentially make it an extension of Shariah or Islamic Law.
In Islamic Bioethics, passages from the Qur'an are often used to validate various medical practices. For example, a passage from the Qur'an states "whosoever killeth a human being … it shall be as if he had killed all humankind, and whosoever saveth the life of one, it shall be as if he saved the life of all humankind.
A high value and worth is placed on human life in Islam, and in turn human life is deeply valued in the practice of Islamic bioethics as well. Muslims believe all human life, even one of poor quality, needs to be given appreciation and must be cared for and conserved. In an effort to react to new technological and medical advancements, informed Islamic jurists regularly will hold conferences to discuss new bioethical issues and come to an agreement on where they stand on the issue from an Islamic perspective.
This allows Islamic bioethics to stay pliable and responsive to new advancements in medicine. There is much diversity among Muslims varying from country to country, and the different degrees to which they adhere by Shariah. The Organization of Islamic Conferences Islamic Fiqh Academy OIC-IFA holds the viewpoint that brain death is equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, and acknowledge brain death in an individual as the individual being deceased.
On the contrary, the Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences IOMS states that brain is an "intermediate state between life and death" and do not acknowledge a brain dead individual as being deceased. Like with most other situations, Islamic bioethicists look to the Qur'an and religious leaders regarding their outlook on reproduction and abortion.
It is firmly believed that reproduction of a human child can only be proper and legitimate via marriage. This does not mean that a child can only be reproduced via sexual intercourse between a married couple, but that the only proper and legitimate way to have a child is when it is an act between husband and wife. It is okay for a married couple to have a child artificially and from techniques using modern biotechnology as opposed to sexual intercourse, but to do this out of the context of marriage would be deemed immoral.
Islamic bioethics is strongly against abortion and strictly prohibits it. The IOMS states that "from the moment a zygote settles inside a woman's body, it deserves a unanimously recognized degree of respect. Gene therapy involves ethics, because scientists are making changes to genes, the building blocks of the human body. For example, gene therapy can treat hematopoetic disease.
It is unknown how this type of gene therapy affects long-term human development. In the United States, federal funding cannot be used to research germline gene therapy. Bioethics is taught in courses at the undergraduate and graduate level in different academic disciplines or programs, such as Philosophy, Medicine, Law, Social Sciences. It has become a requirement for professional accreditation in many health professional programs Medicine, Nursing, Rehabilitation , to have obligatory training in ethics e. Every medical school in Canada teaches bioethics so that students can gain an understanding of biomedical ethics and use the knowledge gained in their future careers to provide better patient care.
Canadian residency training programs are required to teach bioethics as it is one of the conditions of accreditation, and is a requirement by the College of Family Physicians of Canada and by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. As a study, bioethics has also drawn criticism.
For instance, Paul Farmer noted that bioethics tends to focus its attention on problems that arise from "too much care" for patients in industrialized nations, while giving little or no attention to the ethical problem of too little care for the poor.
Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics | P.F. Camenisch | Springer
Additionally, bioethics has been condemned for its lack of diversity in thought, particularly with regards to race. Even as the field has grown to include the areas of public opinion, policymaking, and medical decisions, little to no academic writing has been authored concerning the intersection between race- especially the cultural values imbued in that construct- and bioethical literature. Davis  — D. Donagan  — A. Eckenwiler, Cohn  — The Ethics of Bioethics. Mapping the Moral Landscape, L. Eckenwiler, F. Cohn red. Engelhardt  — H. Fan  — R. Fan, Bioethics: Globalization, Communitization, or Localization?
Fletcher  — J. Fletcher, Morals and Medicine. Forman, Damschroder  — J. Forman, L. Frader  — J. Foucault  — M. Banasiak, Czytelnik, Warszawa Green  — R.
Grisez, Boyle  — G. Grisez, J. Grodin  — M. The Philosophical Foundations of Bioethics, M. Grodin red. Hall, King  — M. Hall, N. Harris  — J.
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Harris, The Value of Life. Heyd  — D. Heyd, Genethics. Hunter  — K.
Irving [b. Jonsen, Toulmin  — A. Jonsen, S. Toulmin, The Abuse of Casuistry. Jonsen, Siegler, Winslade  — A. Jonsen, M.
Related Religious Methods and Resources in Bioethics
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